The Board of Studies has defined the following terms to enable students to understand what is expected in responses to examination and assessment tasks. You should use these in conjunction with the Ascham system of text types given in the written assignments.


Account                                 account for; state reasons for, report on. Give an account of: narrate a series of events or transactions.

Analyse                                  identify components and the relationship between them; draw out and relate implications

Apply                                      use, utilise, employ in a particular situation

Appreciate                             make a judgement about the value of

Assess                                   make a judgement of value, quality, outcomes, results or size

Calculate                                ascertain/determine from given facts, figures or information

Clarify                                     make clear or plain

Classify                                  arrange or include in classes/categories

Compare                                                show how things are similar or different

Construct                              make; build; put together items or arguments

Contrast                                 show how things are different or opposite

Critically                                 add a degree or level of accuracy depth, knowledge and understanding,

(analyse/                                                logic, questioning, reflection and quality to (analysis/evaluation)


Deduce                                   draw conclusions

Define                                     state meaning and identify essential qualities

Demonstrate                         show by example

Describe                                 provide characteristics and features

Discuss                                  identify issues and provide points for and/or against

Distinguish                            recognise or note/indicate as being distinct or different from; to note differences between

Evaluate                                 make a judgement based on criteria; determine the value of

Examine                                 inquire into

Explain                                   relate cause and effect; make the relationships between things evident; provide why and/or how.

Extract                                    choose relevant and/or appropriate details

Extrapolate                            infer from what is known

Identify                                   recognise and name

Interpret                                 draw meaning from

Investigate                             plan, inquire into and draw conclusions about

Justify                                    support an argument or conclusion

Outline                                   sketch in general terms; indicate the main features of

Predict                                    suggest what may happen based on available information

Propose                                 put forward (for example a point of view, idea, argument, suggestion) for consideration or action

Recall                                     present remembered ideas, facts or experiences

Recommend                          provide reasons in favour

Recount                                 retell a series of events

Summarise                            express, concisely, the relevant details

Synthesis                               putting together various elements to make a whole